Vet Advice: Treating Diarrhea in Dogs
How to handle the inevitable mess.
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Ah, the dreaded diarrhea. No matter what you do as a pet parent, it’s pretty much unavoidable with dogs. As a veterinarian, I see many patients with minor gastrointestinal problems who could be treated at home safely and effectively. At the same time, there are dogs whose problems, if not addressed early enough by a veterinary professional, suffer more than they need to.
Probably the most common complaint received by veterinarians is that of diarrhea. It’s such an easy condition to identify (the smell, the texture, you get it). Most of the time, diarrhea is caused by dietary indiscretion or stressful circumstances, and is self-limiting. Diarrhea is not a disease; rather, it is a symptom of a dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). When associated with bad food or food-borne pathogens, diarrhea serves to rapidly remove pathogens from the GIT before they have a chance to be absorbed and cause more damage.
Warning Signs That Dog Diarrhea Needs Medical Attention
Black, tarry stool, or stool with copious amounts of fresh blood (bright red)
Loss of appetite
Signs of abdominal pain (bloating, groaning, panting rapidly or avoidance response when belly is touched)
Lasts longer than 48 hours (Since it can rapidly weaken puppies and geriatrics, or dogs with chronic diseases, they may need veterinary attention sooner)
Immediate Care for Mild Dog Diarrhea
However, when your dog has mild diarrhea and doesn’t meet any of the above criteria, the best things to start with are to put your dog on a 24-hour rice-water fast (white rice balls that contain active probiotic cultures) and the oral administration of an intestinal protectant such as kaolin clay and pectin (KaoPectate™) or a suspension containing bismuth subsalicylate (PeptoBismol™).
Loperamide (Imodium™) can be given if the diarrhea doesn’t resolve easily; caution is required when using this OTC medication in Collies, and don’t use it for more than five days. (Another caveat: While dogs can tolerate PeptoBismol or KaoPectate, these medications should never be given to cats, as they contain salicylates, which are potentially toxic for felines.)
Fasting your dog allows their GIT to rest and recover from whatever insult it has received. During the fast, make sure your dog has plenty of rice water to drink. (Rice water is the creamy liquid that results from boiling white rice in water.) It’s important to use a good quality white rice; “minute” rice does not work and brown rice has too much fiber in it, which does not help firm the stool because it speeds the transit of digested material through the colon.
To make rice water, boil one cup of white rice in four cups of water for 10 to 30 minutes (slightly uncovered) or until the water turns creamy white. Decant the liquid and allow it to cool. You can serve the rice water to your dog as often as she will drink it. If she isn’t interested, mix a teaspoon of chicken baby food (or another flavor that your pet likes) in the rice water to increase its palatability. (Hint: One cup of white rice makes a lot of rice water!)
Probiotics are living bacterial cultures intended to assist the body’s naturally occurring gut flora in reestablishing themselves — they may also help speed recovery. These live microorganisms are found in yogurt, and are also available from a health food store or your veterinarian as high-potency powdered acidophilus cultures, which are more effective than yogurt for diarrhea. Mix these cultures into the rice water that you are serving your pet during their fast.
Reintroduce Solids Slowly
After the fast is over, start your dog back on a bland diet of white rice cooked with extra water and mixed with small amounts of baby food for protein and flavor; for each cup of dry rice, use two to three cups of water. Continue to add probiotics to your pup’s food, using at least two to 10 billion viable bacterial organisms in each meal you serve; to determine the level of “viable organisms” or “colony forming units” (CFUs) present in a probiotic such as acidophilus, look on the label — a reputable manufacturer will list that number.
Consider the Medication
Dosages for the two intestinal protectants mentioned above are approximate (call your vet to confirm). Use the liquid medication, not the tablets, and give about 1 cc of liquid for every 10 pounds of body weight up to three times daily. The bismuth subsalicylate has more anti-inflammatory activity, so it may work better on patients with abdominal cramping.
If the diarrhea is very severe, you may want to also give your dog some loperamide (Imodium AD™), which can help to reduce fluid loss until the rice-water fast, white rice and acidophilus, and the dog’s own healing system can overcome the diarrhea. The published dose for loperamide in dogs is 2 mg (the standard-size capsule) for every 40 to 45 pounds of body weight, two to three times daily (this translates into no more than 0.1 mg per pound).
This information is not meant to be a substitute for veterinary care. Always follow the instructions provided by your veterinarian.
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Robert J. Silver
Robert Silver, DVM, founder of Boulder's Natural Animal: A Holistic Wellness Center, is also a certified veterinary acupuncturist. He received his DVM from Colorado State University's College of Veterinary Medicine in 1982.